Opioid tolerance, dependence, and withdrawal

While each patient is on opioids for a different reason, every person on opioids is equally subject to its powerful effects.

The most dangerous features of opioids are tolerance, dependence, and withdrawal, which are different from addiction.

Centralized pain Frameworks of pain

Dr. Ming Kao View All →

Pain physician & PhD computational biologist @StanfordPain • Advanced pain interventions with CIPS & FIPP • Opinions mine & not medical advice